800px-Zentralperspektive_zeichnen.png7 ways to achieve the Illusion of depth

What is the illusion of depth? It is an illusion that takes place upon a flat, 2 dimensional plane, a picture plane for art purposes. The illusion is skill based in most cases. It is also a mechanical device. Of course like any good artist (Dali) It can be messed with, bend, distorted, pushed to extremes to obtain those desired effects (MC Escher).
Escher_Balcony.jpgMC Escher was a master at perspective

#1 Overlapping-egyptian
2kenna.jpeg book of the Dead

2geese.jpeg the geese of Medum

#2 Shading- these are examples of value changes and the marking techniques to obtain them.

#3 size and scale-egyptian- The largest is the most important. The smallest well, that would be the opposite of the most important.
Size and scale also have much to do with Proportions.

Below we see the smaller figures are farther away and of course the larger ones are closer. They are also higher and lower in the picture plane respectively. (see #5 & #6 below)

Proportion in art.png

#4 Perspective, (defined below) 1, 2 or multi point and or Aerial perspective. Perspective is a mechanical or freehand method for drawing 3 dimensions.

Examples of 1 & 2 point perspective
Rhaphello-1 point perspective
th.jpeg 2 Point is used on the building in the background.
Dali used perspective to the extreme. This is an example of 2 point for all intents and purposes.
Ayuka Sugiura Example of multi point perspective.
Frame and Beam, Ron Davis-multi point perspective.

*Foreshortening is also a form of perspective. It is based on an extreme point of view.

Mantegna, the Dead Christ
Oh that Dali, The Acension
th-1.jpeg Turner
an example of atmospheric (Value changes) Perspective

#5) Value changes

*As objects recede they lighten in Value (atmospheric perspective, Leonardo da Vinci).

*As objects recede detail is harder and harder to see.

*As objects advance Value gets more intense.

*As objects advance details become clearer..

#6 Position upon the picture plane-Chinese
th.jpeg Mr. Gustave Callibotte again
1H2535O6-0.jpg The use of atmosphere and placement was used extensively by Chinese artists

The higher things are placed in the picture plane, the farther away they appear to be.

The further down on the picture Plane, the closer they seem.

#7 The inclusion of Background, middle ground and fore ground.